Penn State International Law Review

First Paragraph

The case for the importance of law and institutions to boost investment and access to credit does not have to be made. Other chapters in this article have unambiguously demonstrated that secured transactions and creditors' rights are among the most influential measures. This need was acknowledged by the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union from the very beginning of the transition process. Since 1990 a huge effort has been made to transform their legal regimes. From the moment communism had collapsed it was urgent to introduce the changes that were necessary to develop modem market economies. The laws and institutions relating to commercial transactions (such as the laws of contracts, companies, property and insolvency) were hopelessly inadequate and economic reform had to be accompanied by major programmes for legal reform. Never before did so many legal systems have to change so much and in such a short period of time.