The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America ("SPP") is a tri-lateral partnership formed in 2005 between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The three countries previously took numerous steps such as the creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement ("NAFTA") to increase the economic prosperity of the continent, and following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the countries began working more closely to ensure continental security. However, U.S. President George W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin and Mexican President Vicente Fox felt that additional steps needed to be taken. This desire to increase continental cooperation in these areas resulted in the establishment of the SPP.
R. C. Van Landingham, Do We Have an Agreement? Examining the Constitutionality and Legality of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, and the Legal Ramifications of its Informality, 27 Penn St. Int'l L. Rev. 937 (2009).