The National Cooperative Research Act of 1984 (NCRA), emerged as Congress' response to concern that "antitrust laws" were obstructing successful American participation in joint research and development ventures. Among the most salient and curious features of the Act are its inclusive-exclusive language, its therapies, its "rule of reason" and its limited liability provisions. While NCRA is a domestic act, it has wide reaching international implications. Effective exploitation of NCRA's benefits, by foreign investors as well as American investors, depends upon an understanding of what activities fall within its scope and how its features operate.
John A. Maher & Nancy J. LaMont, National Cooperative Research Act of 1984: Cartelism for High-Tech Ventures (and Others?), 7 Penn St. Int'l L. Rev. 1 (1988).