Penn State International Law Review


Martha L. Cecil


To place the Shipping Act of 1984 in context, this Comment begins by outlining the development of ocean liner conferences and the economics of liner operations. It then describes the changes in case law that increased foreign carriers' exposure to antitrust liability and caused foreign governments to enact retaliatory blocking statutes in an effort to protect their nationals from the extraterritorial application of United States laws. The major portion of the Comment then analyzes the Shipping Act of 1984 and compares the provisions that are responsive to international shipping practices with those that remain in conflict with generally accepted shipping policies. Finally, to illustrate how the Act will operate, the key provisions are applied to a fact situation based on the shipping cases credited with provoking foreign retaliation.