Penn State International Law Review

First Paragraph

In Portugal, concrete control of constitutionality, approximately equivalent to the United States concept of judicial review, is one of the basic mechanisms available to individuals for the protection of their fundamental rights. It is exercised by all Courts since they all have a duty not to apply legal provisions which are in breach of the Constitution.' The Constitutional Court is the final instance of concrete constitutional control. The control of constitutionality by the Constitutional Court in judicial cases takes place in a proceeding designated "constitutionality appeal." It is not a procedural incident and, accordingly, there is no staying of proceedings; it is a proper appeal and, as such, presupposes a previous judicial decision on the subject.