Penn State International Law Review

First Paragraph

In the past thirty years, the original centralized model of judicial review, adopted in almost all European countries, has progressively developed into a more "subjective" form of constitutional control, as a result of the expansive force of fundamental rights in modern societies and the adoption of comprehensive charters of rights in central and eastern European countries. Constitutional courts have come to play a central role in the protection of first-, second- and third-generation rights in both consolidated and newly established democracies.