Penn State International Law Review


Beverley Baines

First Paragraph

Constitutionalism promises norms and structures that hold states accountable for their actions. These norms and strategies vary from state to state. In 1982, Canada adopted a Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which entrenched new constitutional norms and strategies. In addition, the 1982 reforms declare that the Constitution, including the Canadian Charter, is "supreme law." Throughout the intervening decades, courts have relied on this declaration to judicially review government activity. Thus, the promise of constitutionalism is alive and well in Canada.