Penn State International Law Review


First Paragraph

The Maori people of New Zealand and the Navajo tribe of the southwestern United States were both subjugated by powerful expansionist nations during the nineteenth century. Great Britain gained control of the islands of New Zealand from the Maori in 1840, while the United States defeated the Navajo during the 1860s. Both Great Britain and the United States destroyed the autonomy of these indigenous groups, confiscated their lands, and imposed European-style land title systems that were far removed from the traditional modes of land use and occupancy practiced by the Maori and the Navajo.