Penn State International Law Review

First Paragraph

In 1959 the image of Malcolm X burst onto white America in a Mike Wallace television documentary entitled: The Hate That Hate Produced. The image of Malcolm X which emerged was the personification of black rage. Such a characterization, however, illustrates and perpetuates the misunderstandings that have surrounded Malcolm X in life and death. In order to gain an understanding of him, it is necessary to realize that he was a constantly evolving individual, particularly in terms of his political ideology. As Malcolm X described it: "[m]y life has always been one of changes." Such evolution has inevitably led to a series of drastically differing interpretations of his legacy. Perhaps the most significant stage of Malcolm X's ideological evolution occurred during the last year of his life. It was during the last year of his life that Malcolm X emerged from the racial separatism of Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam. He sought to develop a pedagogy designed to achieve a solution to the problems of African-Americans premised upon a Pan-African internationalism through the utilization of the United Nations and international human rights law.