On January 1, 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Canada and Mexico took effect, eliminating most tariffs between the three countries, and effectively stripping away economic protectionism for each nation's domestic interests. The United States and Canada had already entered into the Free Trade Agreement in 1988, beginning a process of elimination of tariff barriers between the two nations, which eventually culminated in the NAFTA accord. The destruction of economic borders has increased competition as each province and state tries to attract new and better jobs to employ its citizens. In the Southeastern United States and Mexico, businesses have been increasingly attracted by the prospect of "right-to-work" laws. Right-to-work laws prevent union security clauses from becoming part of a collective bargaining agreement, even if freely negotiated between the employer and the union.
John H. Taylor III, Protecting the Golden Goose: Canadian Union Security Agreements and Competitiveness in the Age of NAFTA, 15 Penn St. Int'l L. Rev. 593 (1997).