Societies may differ in their views as to what constitutes corruption, although the concept finds universal manifestations. Experts have different perspectives on the meaning, causes, and effects of this universal phenomenon. While a few take an interdisciplinary approach, positions are more often influenced by the respective discipline. The literature on the subject is vast and diversified. Any attempt to summarize it here would not do it justice. It may be useful, however, to begin this paper by sharing with the reader some of the main findings based on that literature.
Ibrahim F. Shihata, Corruption-A General Review With an Emphasis on the Role of the World Bank, 15 Penn St. Int'l L. Rev. 451 (1997).