Penn State International Law Review

First Paragraph

World stability is increasingly threatened by sophisticated criminal organizations and their creative implementation of money laundering schemes. Potentially, one of the most harmful effects of money laundering by these highly skilled organizations is the worldwide undermining of financial institutions - both banks and non-banks, alike. In order to gain much needed hard currency, some nations encourage money laundering. Most of the industrial countries of the world, however, fight back by utilizing a three prong attack: 1) treaties and conventions; 2) police-government cooperation; and 3) domestic tightening of money controls combined with relaxed bank secrecy restrictions.