Nearly one-fifth of the states of the international community are states without access to and from the sea (SWA), i.e., states that do not possess a coastline. By virtue of their geography, these states do not have access to marine resources. Public international law, particularly the law of the sea, can correct these factual inequalities by establishing a specific legal regime in favor of SWA to provide freedom of access and the right to use the sea.
Kishor Uprety, Landlocked States and Access to the Sea: An Evolutionary Study of a Contested Right, 12 Penn St. Int'l L. Rev. 401 (1994).