Penn State International Law Review

First Paragraph

The lyrics of Hatikvah reflect the yearnings that Jews have felt throughout centuries of persecution, yearnings to return to their homeland, the ancient land of Israel. While these yearnings appeared quashed after the Holocaust, in the wake of this disaster, "Zionism alone emerged as a viable Jewish response" to the horrors of anti- Semitism. This movement resulted in the establishment of the state of Israel on May 14, 1948, in accordance with the United Nations' adoption of the resolution for the formation of an independent Jewish state in Palestine. In reparation for the devastation the Holocaust caused, the United Nations ended British rule over Palestine and created the first Jewish state of the modem world.