Penn State International Law Review

First Paragraph

On September 3, 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt in his Neutrality Address said, "The influence of America should be consistent in seeking for humanity a final peace which will eliminate, as far as it is possible to do so, the continued use of force between nations." Roosevelt's Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, also emphasized the importance of "creating a stable and enduring order under law." At the conclusion of World War II, Japan was completely defeated by the Allied Powers and was forced to surrender unconditionally. The hope for lasting peace was incarnated in the Japanese Peace Treaty (Treaty). This document provided minor reparations for the victor while rebuilding the vanquished.