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This section focuses on scholarship surrounding hate crimes—in particular hate crimes relating to LGBTQ communities. The scholarship spans the last decade, a decade that has seen significant progress. As such, early articles discuss marriage equality and suggest that hate crimes would significantly decrease if marriage equality passed at a federal level. Other articles focus on the Hate Crimes Statistics Act, Pub. L. No. 101-275, 28 U.S.C. § 534, and suggest that Congress should enact more, better antihate crime legislation that includes sexual orientation and gender identity as protected classes. After the passage of the Hate Crimes Prevention Act, Pub. L. No. 111-84, 18 U.S.C. § 249, 1389; 42 U.S.C. § 3716, 3716a, scholars focus on the Act’s deficiencies and the need for consistent and strong state laws prohibiting hate crimes. Still other scholars discuss the intersection of communities of color and LGBTQ communities in common oppression and as victims of hate crimes. As evidenced by the Pulse nightclub massacre in 2016, Latinx and LGBTQ communities intersected as victims of a common attack. At least one article discusses the complexities of such an intersection and why the threads of oppression cannot be untangled.