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This is the first major study of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in a generation. This study focuses on a unique co-evolution of science and law over more than a half-century of development. Our NAAQSs can be found everywhere from your phone’s air quality index to the trends of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in America. Yet no one has studied the ways in which law and the science of air pollution have reciprocally determined each other through them. Through a study of 26 reviews across seven presidencies and 21 reported opinions adjudicating 106 petitions challenging those reviews/revisions, this piece offers firm conclusions about the NAAQS-setting history and what it can teach us about deliberate improvements of the law/science interface.