This article compares the American approach to improving sporting opportunities for females – Title IX – with approaches taken by Spain. Because of the singular American dedication to elite interscholastic and intercollegiate sports, Title IX’s requirement of equal treatment requires that elite female athletes have equivalent opportunities to elite male athletes. The Spanish approach looks instead on the social benefits of athletics participation for boys, men, girls, and women.
Stephen Ross and Maria Josefa Garcia Cirac, Promoting Female Sporting Opportunities Without Title IX: The Spanish Experience, 33 Marq. Sports L. Rev. 607 (2023).