During the 1960s and 70s, the spread of strikes by teachers prompted many states to enact collective bargaining statutes to codify the means of negotiations between teachers and school districts. Today, thirty-five states authorize collective bargaining and utilize mediation, fact-finding procedures, and/or arbitration procedures to settle bargaining impasses. In addition, in collective bargaining statutes, twenty-seven states now prohibit teacher strikes and eighteen states impose penalties for teacher strikes. As a result of this type of state legislation, both national and local teachers’ unions have emerged as powerful entities that negotiate collective bargaining agreements on behalf of teachers.
Jessica Nixon, Educational Collective Bargaining: The Effect of Impasse Resolution Procedures on Public School Teachers, 5 Y.B. Arb. & Mediation 340 (2013).